Original Leather Case

THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE

THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE
THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE

THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE

Protected in a custom clamshell leather case. FIRST EDITION/FIRST PRINTING of the Jungle Books! This London Edition is the most desirable form of this set.

The rare and highly desirable FIRST EDITIONS of the JUNGLE BOOKS! Bound in the original bindings. With intricately gilded elephants, and cobra. Illustrated frontispiece to The Jungle Book.

Llustrations in the text of both volumes, by William Henry Drake, Paul Frenzeny, and the author's father John Lockwood Kipling. There were only 7000 copies of the First Edition of The Jungle Book. (10,000 copies of the Second Jungle Book). Rudyard Kipling has been called perhaps the most original genius among English-writing novelists of the latter 19th and early 20th centuries.

Certainly no other has been so widely acclaimed, so eagerly read, so lastingly loved by readers on both sides of the Atlantic. The honors bestowed upon him all over the world were capped in 1907 when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. CONDITION : These are the true First Edition/First Printings of the Jungle Books. Printed in 1894 and 1895, respectively.

In Good condition only, and consistent with that book grade, with generalized wear associated with that book grade. Generalized abrasion, usage wear, and generalized wear associated with this condition grade. These were made of high quality materials and are still very nice. And are still complete and intact, and exceedingly rare.

This set comes protected in a custom clamshell leather case. The case has generalized wear and abrasion, as is shown in the pictures, and old stickers on the top of the case that matches the overall condition. The top inner panel section of the case is detached but still present, it is detached from the rest of the case, this is an easy repair for a conservator, but the way the case top inserts puts pressure on that piece, so it seems best to not have it repaired as it isn't integral to the function of the case or the protection of the books, in fact being able to slide on the cover seems preferable to having to insert it down vertically. Also included is a soft felt-like divider inside the case to prevent the books from abrading each other. The main point of wear is that these books have extensive generalized wear from having been read. Still in exceptional condition and still very presentable. Still, a presentable First Edition, at a much more affordable price, with a custom leather-bound case. The leather case will also be exceedingly well protected. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation).

Embossed cover of first edition with artwork by John Lockwood Kipling. The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. Most of the characters are animals such as Shere Khan. The bear, though a principal character is the boy or "man-cub" Mowgli. Who is raised in the jungle by wolves.

The stories are set in a forest in India. One place mentioned repeatedly is "Seonee" Seoni. A major theme in the book is abandonment followed by fostering, as in the life of Mowgli, echoing Kipling's own childhood. The theme is echoed in the triumph of protagonists including Rikki-Tikki-Tavi. And The White Seal over their enemies, as well as Mowgli's. Another important theme is of law and freedom; the stories are not about animal behaviour. Still less about the Darwinian. Struggle for survival, but about human archetypes. They teach respect for authority, obedience, and knowing one's place in society with "the law of the jungle", but the stories also illustrate the freedom to move between different worlds, such as when Mowgli moves between the jungle and the village. Critics have also noted the essential wildness and lawless energies in the stories, reflecting the irresponsible side of human nature. The Jungle Book has remained popular, partly through its many adaptations for film and other media. Critics such as Swati Singh have noted that even critics wary of Kipling for his supposed imperialism.

Have admired the power of his storytelling. The book has been influential in the scout movement. Was a friend of Kipling's.

Composed his Jungle Book Cycle around quotations from the book. The stories were first published in magazines in 189394. The original publications contain illustrations, some by the author's father, John Lockwood Kipling. Rudyard Kipling was born in India and spent the first six years of his childhood there.

After about ten years in England, he went back to India and worked there for about six-and-a-half years. These stories were written when Kipling lived in Naulakha. The home he built in Dummerston.

There is evidence that Kipling wrote the collection of stories for his daughter Josephine, who died from pneumonia in 1899, aged 6; a first edition of the book with a handwritten note by the author to his young daughter was discovered at the National Trust. In Cambridgeshire, England, in 2010. The tales in the book as well as those in The Second Jungle Book.

Which followed in 1895 and includes five further stories about Mowgli are fables. Using animals in an anthropomorphic. Manner to teach moral lessons. The verses of "The Law of the Jungle", for example, lay down rules for the safety of individuals, families, and communities. Kipling put in them nearly everything he knew or "heard or dreamed about the Indian jungle".

Other readers have interpreted the work as allegories. Of the politics and society of the time. Named by Kipling in versions of the stories. The stories in The Jungle Book were inspired in part by the ancient Indian fable texts such as the Panchatantra.

For example, an older moral-filled mongoose and snake version of the Rikki-Tikki-Tavi. Story by Kipling is found in Book 5 of Panchatantra. In a letter to the American author Edward Everett Hale.

In fact, it is extremely possible that I have helped myself promiscuously but at present cannot remember from whose stories I have stolen. As a child, and most of the stories.

Are evidently set there, though it is not entirely clear where. The Kipling Society notes that "Seonee" Seoni. In the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Is mentioned several times; that the "cold lairs" must be in the jungled hills of Chittorgarh.

And that the first Mowgli story, "In the Rukh", is set in a forest reserve somewhere in northern India, south of Simla. "Mowgli's Brothers" was positioned in the Aravalli hills. (northwestern India) in an early manuscript, later changed to Seonee, and Bagheera treks from "Oodeypore" Udaipur. , a journey of reasonable length to Aravalli but a long way from Seoni. Seoni has a tropical savanna climate.

With a dry and a rainy season. This is drier than a monsoon climate and does not support tropical rainforest.

Forested parks and reserves that claim to be associated with the stories include Kanha Tiger Reserve. However, Kipling never visited the area. The book is arranged with a story in each chapter. Each story is followed by a poem that serves as an epigram. A boy is raised by wolves.

In the Indian jungle with the help of Baloo. Who teach him the "Law of the Jungle". Some years later, the wolfpack and Mowgli are threatened by the tiger Shere Khan.

Mowgli brings fire, driving off Shere Khan but showing that he is a man and must leave the jungle. "Hunting-Song of the Seeonee Pack".

The story has been published as a short book: Night-Song in the Jungle. The tiger's roar filled the cave with thunder. During the time Mowgli was with the wolf pack, he is abducted by the Bandar-log.

Monkeys to the ruined city. Baloo and Bagheera set out to rescue him with Kaa. Kaa defeats the Bandar-log, frees Mowgli, and hypnotises the monkeys and the other animals with his dance. Mowgli rescues Baloo and Bagheera from the spell.

"Road Song of the Bandar-Log". Mowgli made leader of the Bandar-log.

Mowgli leads the village boys who herd the village's buffaloes. Shere Khan comes to hunt Mowgli, but he is warned by Gray Brother wolf, and with Akela they find Shere Khan asleep, and stampede the buffaloes to trample Shere Khan to death. Mowgli leaves the village, and goes back to hunt with the wolves until he becomes a man.

The story's title is taken from William Blake. S 1794 poem The Tyger.

Kotick, a rare white-furred fur seal. Sees seals being killed by islanders in the Bering Sea. He decides to find a safe home for his people, and after several years of searching as he comes of age, eventually finds a suitable place.

Many names in the story are Russian. An English family have just moved to a house in India. They find Rikki-Tikki-Tavi the mongoose. Flooded out of his burrow. A pair of large cobras. Nag and Nagaina, attempt unsuccessfully to kill him. He hears the cobras plotting to kill the father in the house, and attacks Nag in the bathroom. The sound of the fight attracts the father, who shoots Nag. Rikki-Tikki-Tavi destroys Nagaina's eggs and chases her into her "rat-hole" where he kills her too. This story has been published as a short book. Toomai's father rides Kala Nag the elephant to catch wild elephants in the hills. Toomai comes to help and risks his life throwing a role up to one of the drivers.

His father forbids him to enter the elephant enclosure again. One night he follows the elephant hunters, and is picked up by Kala Nag; he rides into the elephants' meeting place in the jungle, where they dance. On his return he is welcomed by both hunters and elephants. This story has been published as a short book, and was the basis of the 1937 film Elephant Boy.

Toomai at the elephant camp, 1894. On the night before a British military parade for the Amir of Afghanistan, the army's working animals.

Mule, camel, horse, bullock, elephantdiscuss what they do in battle and how they feel about their work. It is explained to the Afghans that men and animals obey the orders carried down from the Queen. "Parade-Song of the Camp Animals" is set to the tunes of several well-known songs.

'Anybody can be forgiven for being scared in the night,' said the Troop-Horse. Main article: List of The Jungle Book characters.

Many of the characters (marked) are named simply for the Hindi names of their species: for example, Baloo is a transliteration of Hindi Bhl, "bear". The characters (marked ^) from "The White Seal" are transliterations from the Russian of the Pribilof Islands. In earlier editions called Rann (Ra, "battle").

Father Wolf The father wolf. Who raised Mowgli as his own cub.

Grey brother One of Mother and Father Wolf's cubs. Kotick ^ A white seal. Main character, the young jungle boy. Nagaina A female cobra, Nag's mate. The Mother wolf who raised Mowgli as her own cub.

Sea Catch ^ A seal. Sea Cow A (Steller's) sea cow. Sea Vitch ^ A walrus.

The early editions were illustrated with drawings in the text by John Lockwood Kipling. (Rudyard's father), and the American artists W. The book has appeared in over 500 print editions. It has been translated into at least 36 languages. And the wolf pack with Shere Khan.

Critics such as Harry Ricketts. Child, recalling his own childhood feelings of abandonment. In his view, the enemy, Shere Khan, represents the "malevolent would-be foster-parent" who Mowgli in the end outwits and destroys, just as Kipling as a boy had to face Mrs Holloway in place of his parents.

Ricketts writes that in "Mowgli's Brothers", the hero loses his human parents at the outset, and his wolf fosterers at the conclusion; and Mowgli is again rejected at the end of Tiger! ", but each time is compensated by "a queue of would-be foster-parents including the wolves, Baloo, Bagheera and Kaa. In Ricketts's view, the power that Mowgli has over all these characters who compete for his affection is part of the book's appeal to children. The historian of India Philip Mason.

Similarly emphasises the Mowgli myth, where the fostered hero, "the odd man out among wolves and men alike", eventually triumphs over his enemies. Mason notes that both Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and The White Seal do much the same. Argued that the purpose of the stories was not to teach about animals but to create human archetypes. Through the animal characters, with lessons of respect for authority. She noted that Kipling was a friend of the founder of the Scout Movement. Who based the junior scout "Wolf Cubs" on the stories, and that Kipling admired the movement. Ricketts wrote that Kipling was obsessed by rules, a theme running throughout the stories and named explicitly as "the law of the jungle". Part of this, Ricketts supposed, was Mrs Holloway's evangelicalism, suitably transformed. The rules required obedience and "knowing your place", but also provided social relationships and "freedom to move between different worlds". Sandra Kemp observed that the law may be highly codified, but that the energies are also lawless, embodying the part of human nature which is "floating, irresponsible and self-absorbed". There is a duality between the two worlds of the village and the jungle, but Mowgli, like Mang the bat, can travel between the two. The novelist and critic Angus Wilson. Noted that Kipling's law of the jungle was far from Darwinian. , since no attacks were allowed at the water-hole, even in drought.

In Wilson's view, the popularity of the Mowgli stories is thus not literary but moral. The animals can follow the law easily, but Mowgli has human joys and sorrows, and the burden of making decisions.

Kipling's biographer, Charles Carrington. Argued that the "fables" about Mowgli illustrate truths directly, as successful fables do, through the character of Mowgli himself; through his "kindly mentors", Bagheera and Baloo; through the repeated failure of the "bully" Shere Khan; through the endless but useless talk of the Bandar-log; and through the law, which makes the jungle "an integrated whole" while enabling Mowgli's brothers to live as the "Free People". The academic Jan Montefiore commented on the book's balance of law and freedom that You don't need to invoke Jacqueline Rose. On the adult's dream of the child's innocence or Perry Nodelman's theory of children's literature colonising its readers' minds with a double fantasy of the child as both noble savage and embryo good citizen, to see that the Jungle Books..

Give their readers a vicarious experience of adventure both as freedom and as service to a just State. Sayan Mukherjee, writing for the Book Review Circle, calls The Jungle Book One of the most enjoyable books of my childhood and even in adulthood, highly informative as to the outlook of the British on their'native population'.

The academic Jopi Nyman argued in 2001 that the book formed part of the construction of colonial. Within Kipling's imperial project. In Nyman's view, nation, race and class.

Are mapped out in the stories, contributing to an imagining of Englishness as a site of power and racial superiority. Nyman suggested that The Jungle Book' s monkeys and snakes represent "colonial animals". Within the Indian jungle, whereas the White Seal promotes'truly English' identities in the nationalist.

Swati Singh, in his Secret History of the Jungle Book , notes that the tone is like that of Indian folklore, fable-like, and that critics have speculated that the Kipling may have heard similar stories from his Hindu bearer and his Portuguese ayah (nanny) during his childhood in India. Singh observes, too, that Kipling wove "magic and fantasy" into the stories for his daughter Josephine, and that even critics reading Kipling for signs of imperialism could not help admiring the power of his storytelling. The Jungle Book came to be used as a motivational book by the Cub Scouts. A junior element of the Scouting. This use of the book's universe was approved by Kipling at the request of Robert Baden-Powell.

Founder of the Scouting movement, who had originally asked for the author's permission for the use of the Memory Game. In his scheme to develop the morale and fitness of working-class youths in cities. The head wolf in The Jungle Book , has become a senior figure in the movement; the name is traditionally adopted by the leader.

Of each Cub Scout pack. Further information: The Jungle Book (disambiguation). The Jungle Book has been adapted many times in a wide variety of media. Novel, Stranger in a Strange Land. (1961), when his wife, Virginia. Suggested a new version of The Jungle Book , but with a child raised by Martians instead of wolves. (2008) is inspired by The Jungle Book. It follows a baby boy who is found and brought up by the dead in a cemetery. It has many scenes that can be traced to Kipling, but with Gaiman's dark twist. In music, the Jungle Book cycle (1958) was written by the Australian composer Percy Grainger. It consists of quotations from the book, set as choral pieces and solos for soprano, tenor or baritone. The French composer Charles Koechlin.

Wrote several symphonic works inspired by the book. Broadcast an adaptation on 14 February 1994 and released it as a BBC audiobook in 2008. It was directed by Chris Wallis with Nisha K. Nayar as Mowgli, Eartha Kitt. As Baloo, and Jonathan Hyde.

The music was by John Mayer. The book's text has been adapted for younger readers with comic book adaptations such as DC Comics. Story, Superman: The Feral Man of Steel. , in which an infant Superman.

Is raised by wolves, while Bagheera, Akela, and Shere Khan make appearances. Published several adaptations by Mary Jo Duffy. In the pages of Marvel Fanfare.

These were collected in the one-shot Marvel Illustrated. S comic book series, Fables. S Mowgli, Bagheera, and Shere Khan.

Manga Classics: The Jungle Book, published by UDON Entertainment's Manga Classics imprint, was published in June 2017. Many films have been based on one or another of Kipling's stories, including Elephant Boy. (Mowgli) published as Adventures of Mowgli. In the US, an animation released between 1967 and 1971, and combined into a single 96-minute feature film in 1973.

S made for-TV cartoons Rikki-Tikki-Tavi (1975). And Mowgli's Brothers (1976).

Many films, too, have been made of the book as a whole, such as Zoltán Korda. And the 1989 Italian-Japanese anime. Stuart Paterson wrote a stage adaptation in 2004, first produced by the Birmingham. In 2004 and published in 2007 by Nick Hern Books. Feral children in mythology and fiction.

"The White Seal" is set in the Pribilof Islands. Many of the'animal language' words and names in this story are a phonetic spelling of Russian probably as spoken with an Aleut. Originally titled "Servants of the Queen". "Cavalry Horses" is set to Bonnie Dundee.

"Elephants of the Gun-Teams" fits the tune and has a similar first line to the marching song The British Grenadiers. "Screw-Gun Mules" is set to the tune of the English folk song The Lincolnshire Poacher.

And echoes some of its lines. Darzee is the Hindi for tailor. Raksha is the Hindi for defence.

This article is about the 1895 book. For the 2003 animated film, see The Jungle Book 2. For the 1997 live-action film, see The Second Jungle Book: Mowgli and Baloo. Gilt-stamped cover from the original edition of The Second Jungle Book , based on interior illustrations by John Lockwood Kipling. The front cover depicts the white cobra from "The King's Ankus"; the spine art shows Mowgli and Kaa wrestling from the same story. The Second Jungle Book is a sequel to The Jungle Book. First published in 1895, it features five stories about Mowgli. And three unrelated stories, all but one set in India.

Most of which Kipling wrote while living in Vermont. All of the stories were previously published in magazines in 1894-5, often under different titles.

The 1994 film The Jungle Book. Used it as a source. Each story is followed by a related poem. "How Fear Came": This story takes place before Mowgli fights Shere Khan. During a drought, Mowgli and the animals gather at a shrunken Wainganga River for a Water Truce where the display of the blue-colored Peace Rock prevents anyone from hunting at its riverbanks.

After Shere Khan was driven away by him for nearly defiling the Peace Rock, Hathi. The elephant tells Mowgli the story of how the first tiger got his stripes when fear first came to the jungle. This story can be seen as a forerunner of the Just So Stories. The Law of the Jungle.

"The Miracle of Purun Bhagat": An influential Indian politician abandons his worldly goods to become an ascetic holy man. Later, he must save a village from a landslide with the help of the local animals whom he has befriended. "A Song of Kabir" (poem). : Mowgli has been driven out of the human village for witchcraft, and the superstitious villagers are preparing to kill his adopted parents Messua and her unnamed husband.

Mowgli rescues them and then prepares to take revenge. "Mowgli's Song Against People" (poem). "The Undertakers": A mugger crocodile. And a Greater adjutant stork, three of the most unpleasant characters on the river, spend an afternoon bickering with each other until some Englishmen arrive to settle some unfinished business with the crocodile.

: Mowgli discovers a jewelled object beneath the Cold Lairs, which he later discards carelessly, not realising that men will kill each other to possess it. Although the error was corrected in later printings, it was picked up by some later editions.

"The Song of the Little Hunter" (poem). Boy and girl set out across the arctic. Ice on a desperate hunt for food to save their tribe from starvation, guided by the mysterious animal-spirit Quiquern. However, Quiquern is not what he seems.

: Mowgli's wolfpack is threatened by a pack of rampaging dholes. To help him formulate a plan to defeat them. "The Spring Running": Mowgli, now almost seventeen years old, is growing restless for reasons he cannot understand. On an aimless run through the jungle he stumbles across the village where his adopted mother Messua. Is now living with her two-year-old son, and is torn between staying with her and returning to the jungle.

A young human boy of Indian. Ancestry who has been raised by wolves since infancy. Father Wolf An Indian wolf. Who is Raksha's mate.

And the one who discovered the infant Mowgli and entrusted him to the wolves. Ikki An Indian crested porcupine.

Grey Brother One of Mother and Father Wolf's cubs. In a later Mowgli story written by Kipling titled "In the Rukh", Grey Brother is depicted as still living with Mowgli even after Mowgli has grown-up, watching over his infant son.

1992 book by Pamela Jekel, consisting of new Mowgli stories, in an imitation of Kipling's style. The Second Jungle Book: Mowgli & Baloo. 1997 film starring Jamie Williams as Mowgli. But the movie's story has little or no connection with the stories in Rudyard Kipling's The Second Jungle Book.

For other uses, see Kipling (disambiguation). Joseph Rudyard Kipling 30 December 1865 Bombay. 18 January 1936 (aged 70) London.

Short-story writer, novelist, poet, journalist. Short story, novel, children's literature, poetry, travel literature, science fiction. " " The White Man's Burden.

30 December 1865 18 January 1936. Was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much of his work. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book. (1901), and many short stories, including The Man Who Would Be King. " (1890), " The Gods of the Copybook Headings. " (1919), " The White Man's Burden. He is seen as an innovator in the art of the short story. His children's books are classics; one critic noted "a versatile and luminous narrative gift". Kipling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was among the United Kingdom's most popular writers. Said, Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have ever known. In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. As the first English-language writer to receive the prize, and at 41, its youngest recipient to date.

He was also sounded for the British Poet Laureateship. And several times for a knighthood.

Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed with the political and social climate of the age. The contrasting views of him continued for much of the 20th century. Saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", who was "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: [Kipling] is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced.

That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with. Links with camping and scouting. Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay. (née MacDonald) and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice one of the four noted MacDonald sisters. Would say, Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room. Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake.

They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that they named their first child after it. Two of Alice's sisters were married artists: Georgiana. To the painter Edward Burne-Jones. And her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter.

Kipling's most prominent relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin. Three times in the 1920s and 1930s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J. School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although a cottage bears a plaque noting it as his birth site, the original one may have been torn down and replaced decades ago.

Some historians and conservationists take the view that the bungalow marks a site merely close to the home of Kipling's birth, as it was built in 1882 about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean when visiting J.

Kipling's India : a map of British India. Murphy, Kipling's parents considered themselves' Anglo-Indians. [a term used in the 19th century for people of British origin living in India] and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere. Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction.

Kipling referred to such conflicts. For example: In the afternoon heats. Before we took our sleep, she the Portuguese ayah. Or nanny or Meeta (the Hindu bearer , or male attendant) would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, and we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma. So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in.

Marking Kiplings time in Southsea, Portsmouth. Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended when he was five. As was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice ("Trix") were taken to the United Kingdom in their case to Southsea.

Portsmouth to live with a couple who boarded. Children of British nationals living abroad. For the next six years (from October 1871 to April 1877), the children lived with the couple Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy. And Sarah Holloway at their house, Lorne Lodge, 4 Campbell Road, Southsea.

In his autobiography published 65 years later, Kipling recalled the stay with horror, and wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings (specially when he wants to go to sleep) he will contradict himself very satisfactorily. If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture religious as well as scientific.

Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort. Kipling's England : A map of England showing Kipling's homes. Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; Mrs Holloway apparently hoped that Trix would eventually marry the Holloways' son. The two Kipling children, however, had no relatives in England they could visit, except that they spent a month each Christmas with a maternal aunt Georgiana ("Georgy") and her husband, Edward Burne-Jones. At their house, The Grange, in Fulham.

London, which Kipling called a paradise which I verily believe saved me. Kipling remembers, Often and often afterwards, the beloved Aunt would ask me why I had never told any one how I was being treated. Children tell little more than animals, for what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also, badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear of it.

In January 1878, Kipling was admitted to the United Services College. Devon, a school recently founded to prepare boys for the army.

It proved rough going for him at first, but later led to firm friendships and provided the setting for his schoolboy stories Stalky & Co. Florence became the model for Maisie in Kipling's first novel, The Light That Failed.

Near the end of his schooling, it was decided that Kipling did not have the academic ability to get into Oxford University on a scholarship. His parents lacked the wherewithal to finance him. And so Kipling's father obtained him a job in Lahore.

Where the father served as Principal of the Mayo College of Art. And Curator of the Lahore Museum. Kipling was to be assistant editor. Of a local newspaper, the Civil and Military Gazette. He sailed for India on 20 September 1882 and arrived in Bombay on 18 October. He described the moment years later: So, at sixteen years and nine months, but looking four or five years older, and adorned with real whiskers which the scandalised Mother abolished within one hour of beholding, I found myself at Bombay where I was born, moving among sights and smells that made me deliver in the vernacular sentences whose meaning I knew not. Other Indian-born boys have told me how the same thing happened to them. This arrival changed Kipling, as he explains: There were yet three or four days' rail to Lahore, where my people lived. After these, my English years fell away, nor ever, I think, came back in full strength. From 1883 to 1889, Kipling worked in British India for local newspapers such as the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore and The Pioneer. Where Kipling was inspired to write Kim. The former, which was the newspaper Kipling was to call his "mistress and most true love". Appeared six days a week throughout the year, except for one-day breaks for Christmas and Easter. Stephen Wheeler, the editor, worked Kipling hard, but Kipling's need to write was unstoppable.

In 1886, he published his first collection of verse, Departmental Ditties. That year also brought a change of editors at the newspaper; Kay Robinson.

The new editor, allowed more creative freedom and Kipling was asked to contribute short stories to the newspaper. In an article printed in the Chums. Boys' annual, an ex-colleague of Kipling's stated that he never knew such a fellow for ink he simply revelled in it, filling up his pen viciously, and then throwing the contents all over the office, so that it was almost dangerous to approach him. The anecdote continues: In the hot weather when he (Kipling) wore only white trousers and a thin vest, he is said to have resembled a Dalmatian dog. More than a human being, for he was spotted all over with ink in every direction.

In the summer of 1883, Kipling visited Shimla. Then Simla, a well-known hill station. And the summer capital of British India. By then it was the practice for the Viceroy of India. And government to move to Simla for six months, and the town became a "centre of power as well as pleasure".

Kipling's family became annual visitors to Simla, and Lockwood Kipling was asked to serve in Christ Church. My month's leave at Simla, or whatever Hill Station my people went to, was pure joy every golden hour counted. It began in heat and discomfort, by rail and road. It ended in the cool evening, with a wood fire in one's bedroom, and next morn thirty more of them ahead! The early cup of tea, the Mother who brought it in, and the long talks of us all together again. One had leisure to work, too, at whatever play-work was in one's head, and that was usually full. Back in Lahore, 39 of his stories appeared in the Gazette between November 1886 and June 1887. Kipling included most of them in Plain Tales from the Hills.

His first prose collection, published in Calcutta. In January 1888, a month after his 22nd birthday. Kipling's time in Lahore, however, had come to an end. In November 1887, he was moved to the Gazette.

S larger sister newspaper, The Pioneer , in Allahabad. Where worked as assistant editor and lived in Belvedere House from 1888 to 1889. Rudyard Kipling (right) with his father John Lockwood Kipling (left), circa 1890. Kipling's writing continued at a frenetic pace.

In 1888, he published six collections of short stories: Soldiers Three. The Story of the Gadsbys. These contain a total of 41 stories, some quite long. In addition, as The Pioneer. S special correspondent in the western region of Rajputana.

He wrote many sketches that were later collected in Letters of Marque and published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel. Kipling was discharged from The Pioneer in early 1889 after a dispute.

By this time, he had been increasingly thinking of his future. On 9 March 1889, he left India, travelling first to San Francisco via Rangoon.

Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan. Kipling was favourably impressed by Japan, calling its people "gracious folk and fair manners". Kipling later wrote that he "had lost his heart" to a geisha.

Whom he called O-Toyo, writing while in the United States during the same trip across the Pacific, I had left the innocent East far behind.... Kipling then travelled through the United States, writing articles for The Pioneer that were later published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel. Starting his American travels in San Francisco, Kipling went north to Portland, Oregon. British Columbia, through Medicine Hat.

Alberta, back into the US to Yellowstone National Park. Down to Salt Lake City. Then east to Omaha, Nebraska. And on to Chicago, Illinois, then to Beaver, Pennsylvania. To visit the Hill family.

From there, he went to Chautauqua. With Professor Hill, and later to Niagara Falls. In the course of this journey he met Mark Twain.

Kipling arrived unannounced at Twain's home, and later wrote that as he rang the doorbell, It occurred to me for the first time that Mark Twain might possibly have other engagements other than the entertainment of escaped lunatics from India, be they ever so full of admiration. A portrait of Kipling by John Collier. Rudyard Kipling, by Bourne & Shepherd. As it was, Twain gladly welcomed Kipling and had a two-hour conversation with him on trends in Anglo-American literature and about what Twain was going to write in a sequel to Tom Sawyer.

With Twain assuring Kipling that a sequel was coming, although he had not decided upon the ending: either Sawyer would be elected to Congress or he would be hanged. Twain also passed along the literary advice that an author should get your facts first and then you can distort'em as much as you please.

Twain, who rather liked Kipling, later wrote of their meeting: Between us, we cover all knowledge; he covers all that can be known and I cover the rest. Kipling then crossed the Atlantic. He soon made his début in the London literary world, to great acclaim. In London, Kipling had several stories accepted by magazines. He found a place to live for the next two years at Villiers Street.

Near Charing Cross (in a building subsequently named Kipling House). In the next two years, he published a novel, The Light That Failed.

And met an American writer and publishing agent, Wolcott Balestier. With whom he collaborated on a novel, The Naulahka (a title which he uncharacteristically misspelt; see below). In 1891, as advised his doctors, Kipling took another sea voyage, to South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and once again India. He cut short his plans to spend Christmas with his family in India when he heard of Balestier's sudden death from typhoid fever.

And decided to return to London immediately. Before his return, he had used the telegram. To propose to and be accepted by Wolcott's sister Caroline Starr Balestier (18621939), called "Carrie", whom he had met a year earlier, and with whom he had apparently been having an intermittent romance. Meanwhile, late in 1891, a collection of his short stories on the British in India, Life's Handicap , was published in London.

On 18 January 1892, Carrie Balestier (aged 29) and Rudyard Kipling (aged 26) married in London, in the thick of an influenza epidemic, when the undertakers had run out of black horses and the dead had to be content with brown ones. The wedding was held at All Souls Church, Langham Place.

Kipling in his study at Naulakha, Vermont, US, 1895. Kipling and his wife settled upon a honeymoon that took them first to the United States including a stop at the Balestier family estate near Brattleboro, Vermont.

They discovered that their bank, The New Oriental Banking Corporation. We bought, second or third hand, a huge, hot-air stove which we installed in the cellar. We cut generous holes in our thin floors for its eight-inch [20 cm] tin pipes (why we were not burned in our beds each week of the winter I never can understand) and we were extraordinarily and self-centredly content. In this house, which they called Bliss Cottage , their first child, Josephine, was born in three-foot of snow on the night of 29 December 1892.

Her Mother's birthday being the 31st and mine the 30th of the same month, we congratulated her on her sense of the fitness of things.... Rudyard Kipling's America 18921896, 1899.

It was also in this cottage that the first dawnings of the Jungle Books. Came to Kipling: The workroom in the Bliss Cottage was seven feet by eight, and from December to April, the snow lay level with its window-sill. It chanced that I had written a tale about Indian Forestry work which included a boy who had been brought up by wolves. In the stillness, and suspense, of the winter of'92 some memory of the Masonic. Lions of my childhood's magazine, and a phrase in Haggard's. Combined with the echo of this tale.

After blocking out the main idea in my head, the pen took charge, and I watched it begin to write stories about Mowgli. And animals, which later grew into the two Jungle Books. With Josephine's arrival, Bliss Cottage was felt to be congested, so eventually the couple bought land 10 acres (4.0 ha) on a rocky hillside overlooking the Connecticut River.

From Carrie's brother Beatty Balestier and built their own house. In honour of Wolcott and of their collaboration, and this time the name was spelt correctly. From his early years in Lahore.

(188287), Kipling had become enamoured with the Mughal architecture. Which eventually inspired the title of his novel as well as the house. The house still stands on Kipling Road, three miles (5 km) north of Brattleboro in Dummerston, Vermont. His seclusion in Vermont, combined with his healthy "sane clean life", made Kipling both inventive and prolific. In a mere four years he produced, along with the Jungle Books , a book of short stories The Day's Work.

, and a profusion of poetry, including the volume The Seven Seas. The collection of Barrack-Room Ballads. Was issued in March 1892, first published individually for the most part in 1890, and contained his poems Mandalay. He especially enjoyed writing the Jungle Books and also corresponding with many children who wrote to him about them.

The writing life in Naulakha was occasionally interrupted by visitors, including his father. Who visited soon after his retirement in 1893. And the British writer Arthur Conan Doyle. Who brought his golf clubs, stayed for two days, and gave Kipling an extended golf lesson.

Kipling seemed to take to golf, occasionally practising with the local Congregational. Minister and even playing with red-painted balls when the ground was covered in snow. However, winter golf was not altogether a success because there were no limits to a drive; the ball might skid two miles (3 km) down the long slope to Connecticut river. Not least of whose marvels in Vermont. Was the turning of the leaves each fall. He described this moment in a letter: A little maple. Began it, flaming blood-red of a sudden where he stood against the dark green of a pine-belt. Next morning there was an answering signal from the swamp where the sumacs. Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold. Then a wet wind blew, and ruined all the uniforms of that gorgeous army; and the oaks. Who had held themselves in reserve, buckled on their dull and bronzed cuirasses.

And stood it out stiffly to the last blown leaf, till nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one could see into the most private heart of the woods. The Kiplings' first daughter Josephine, 1895. She died of pneumonia in 1899 aged 6. In February 1896, Elsie Kipling. Was born, the couple's second daughter.

By this time, according to several biographers, their marital relationship was no longer light-hearted and spontaneous. Although they would always remain loyal to each other, they seemed now to have fallen into set roles.

In a letter to a friend who had become engaged around this time, the 30yearold Kipling offered this sombre counsel: marriage principally taught the tougher virtues such as humility, restraint, order, and forethought. The Kiplings loved life in Vermont and might have lived out their lives there, were it not for two incidents one of global politics, the other of family discord.

By the early 1890s, the United Kingdom and Venezuela. Were in a border dispute involving British Guiana.

The US had made several offers to arbitrate, but in 1895, the new American Secretary of State Richard Olney. Upped the ante by arguing for the American "right" to arbitrate on grounds of sovereignty on the continent see the Olney interpretation. As an extension of the Monroe Doctrine.

This raised hackles in Britain, and the situation grew into a major Anglo-American crisis. With talk of war on both sides. Although the crisis eased into greater USBritish cooperation, Kipling was bewildered by what he felt was persistent anti-British sentiment in the US, especially in the press.

He wrote in a letter that it felt like being aimed at with a decanter across a friendly dinner table. By January 1896, he had decided. To end his family's "good wholesome life" in the US and seek their fortunes elsewhere. A family dispute became the final straw.

For some time, relations between Carrie and her brother Beatty Balestier had been strained, owing to his drinking and insolvency. In May 1896, an inebriated Beatty encountered Kipling on the street and threatened him with physical harm. The incident led to Beatty's eventual arrest, but in the subsequent hearing and the resulting publicity, Kipling's privacy was destroyed, and he was left feeling miserable and exhausted. Kipling's Torquay house, with an English heritage blue plaque.

By September 1896, the Kiplings were in Torquay. Devon, on the south-western coast of England, in a hillside home overlooking the English Channel. Although Kipling did not much care for his new house, whose design, he claimed, left its occupants feeling dispirited and gloomy, he managed to remain productive and socially active. Kipling was now a famous man, and in the previous two or three years had increasingly been making political pronouncements in his writings. The Kiplings had welcomed their first son, John. Kipling had begun work on two poems, Recessional. " (1897) and " The White Man's Burden. (1899), which were to create controversy when published. Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound empire-building capturing the mood of the Victorian era. , the poems were seen by others as propaganda for brazen-faced imperialism. And its attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and warnings of the perils of empire.

There was also foreboding in the poems, a sense that all could yet come to naught. A prolific writer during his time in Torquay, he also wrote Stalky & Co. A collection of school stories. Born of his experience at the United Services College. , whose juvenile protagonists display a know-it-all, cynical outlook on patriotism and authority.

According to his family, Kipling enjoyed reading aloud stories from Stalky & Co. To them and often went into spasms of laughter over his own jokes. Gwynne, Julian Ralph, Perceval Landon, and Rudyard Kipling in South Africa, 19001901.

In early 1898, the Kiplings travelled to South Africa for their winter holiday, so beginning an annual tradition which (except the following year) would last until 1908. They would stay in "The Woolsack", a house on Cecil Rhodes. S estate at Groote Schuur.

Now a student residence for the University of Cape Town. , within walking distance of Rhodes' mansion.

With his new reputation as Poet of the Empire , Kipling was warmly received by some of the influential politicians of the Cape Colony. Including Rhodes, Sir Alfred Milner. Kipling cultivated their friendship and came to admire the men and their politics. The period 18981910 was crucial in the history of South Africa and included the Second Boer War. (18991902), the ensuing peace treaty, and the 1910 formation of the Union of South Africa. Back in England, Kipling wrote poetry in support of the British cause in the Boer War and on his next visit to South Africa in early 1900, became a correspondent for The Friend newspaper in Bloemfontein. Which had been commandeered by Lord Roberts.

Although his journalistic stint was to last only two weeks, it was Kipling's first work on a newspaper staff since he left The Pioneer in Allahabad. More than ten years before.

At The Friend , he made lifelong friendships with Perceval Landon. He also wrote articles published more widely expressing his views on the conflict.

Kipling penned an inscription for the Honoured Dead Memorial. Kipling at his desk, 1899. Portrait by his cousin, Sir Philip Burne-Jones. In 1897, Kipling moved from Torquay. East Sussex first to North End House and then to The Elms.

In 1902, Kipling bought Bateman's. A house built in 1634 and located in rural Burwash. Bateman's was Kipling's home from 1902 until his death in 1936. It had no bathroom, no running water upstairs and no electricity, but Kipling loved it: Behold us, lawful owners of a grey stone lichened house A. 1634 over the door beamed, panelled, with old oak staircase, and all untouched and unfaked.

It is a good and peaceable place. We have loved it ever since our first sight of it (from a November 1902 letter). In the non-fiction realm, he became involved in the debate over the British response to the rise in German naval power known as the Tirpitz Plan. To build a fleet to challenge the Royal Navy.

Publishing a series of articles in 1898 collected as A Fleet in Being. On a visit to the United States in 1899, Kipling and his daughter Josephine developed pneumonia. From which she eventually died. He sat in defiance of municipal orders, astride the gun Zam-Zammeh.

On her old platform, opposite the old Ajaibgher, the Wonder House, as the natives called the Lahore Museum. In the wake of his daughter's death, Kipling concentrated on collecting material for what became Just So Stories.

For Little Children , published in 1902, the year after Kim. The American literary scholar David Scott has argued that Kim disproves the claim by Edward Said. About Kipling as a promoter of Orientalism.

As Kipling who was deeply interested in Buddhism as he presented Tibetan Buddhism in a fairly sympathetic light and aspects of the novel appeared to reflect a Buddhist understanding of the universe. Kipling was offended by the German Emperor Wilhelm II.

In 1900, urging German troops being sent to China to crush the Boxer Rebellion. To behave like "Huns" and take no prisoners.

In a 1902 poem, The Rowers , Kipling attacked the Kaiser as a threat to Britain and made the first use of the term Hun. As an anti-German insult, using Wilhelm's own words and the actions of German troops in China to portray Germans as essentially barbarian. In an interview with the French newspaper Le Figaro. The Francophile Kipling called Germany a menace and called for an Anglo-French alliance to stop it.

In another letter at the same time, Kipling described the " unfrei peoples of Central Europe" as living in "the Middle Ages with machine guns". Kipling wrote a number of speculative fiction.

Short stories, including The Army of a Dream. Both were set in the 21st century in Kipling's Aerial Board of Control. They read like modern hard science fiction. And introduced the literary technique known as indirect exposition. Which would later become one of science fiction writer Robert Heinlein. This technique is one that Kipling picked up in India, and used to solve the problem of his English readers not understanding much about Indian society, when writing The Jungle Book. In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, having been nominated in that year by Charles Oman.

Professor at the University of Oxford. The prize citation said it was in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author.

Nobel prizes had been established in 1901 and Kipling was the first English-language recipient. At the award ceremony in Stockholm. On 10 December 1907, the Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy. Praised both Kipling and three centuries of English literature.

To "book-end" this achievement came the publication of two connected poetry and story collections: Puck of Pook's Hill. (1906), and Rewards and Fairies. The latter contained the poem If.

Opinion poll, it was voted the UK's favourite poem. This exhortation to self-control and stoicism is arguably Kipling's most famous poem. Rudyard Kipling by George Wylie Hutchinson. Such was Kipling's popularity that he was asked by his friend Max Aitken. To intervene in the 1911 Canadian election. On behalf of the Conservatives.

In 1911, the major issue in Canada was a reciprocity. Treaty with the United States signed by the Liberal Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier. And vigorously opposed by the Conservatives under Sir Robert Borden. On 7 September 1911, the Montreal Daily Star. Newspaper published a front-page appeal against the agreement by Kipling, who wrote: It is her own soul that Canada risks today.

Once that soul is pawned for any consideration, Canada must inevitably conform to the commercial, legal, financial, social, and ethical standards which will be imposed on her by the sheer admitted weight of the United States. At the time, the Montreal Daily Star was Canada's most read newspaper. Over the next week, Kipling's appeal was reprinted in every English newspaper in Canada and is credited with helping to turn Canadian public opinion against the Liberal government. Kipling sympathised with the anti- Home Rule. He was friends with Edward Carson.

The Dublin-born leader of Ulster Unionism. Who raised the Ulster Volunteers. To prevent Home Rule in Ireland.

Kipling wrote in a letter to a friend that Ireland was not a nation, and that before the English arrived in 1169, the Irish were a gang of cattle thieves living in savagery and killing each other while "writing dreary poems" about it all. In his view it was only British rule that allowed Ireland to advance.

A visit to Ireland in 1911 confirmed Kipling's prejudices. He wrote that the Irish countryside was beautiful, but spoiled by what he called the ugly homes of Irish farmers, with Kipling adding that God had made the Irish into poets having "deprived them of love of line or knowledge of colour". In contrast, Kipling had nothing but praise for the "decent folk" of the Protestant majority and Unionist Ulster.

Kipling wrote the poem " Ulster " in 1912, reflecting his Unionist politics. Kipling often referred to the Irish Unionists as "our party". Kipling had no sympathy or understanding for Irish nationalism. Seeing Home Rule as an act of treason by the government of the Liberal Prime Minister H.

That would plunge Ireland into the Dark Ages and allow the Irish Catholic majority to oppress the Protestant minority. Wrote that Kipling's lack of understanding of Ireland could be seen in his attack on John Redmond. The Anglophile leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party. Who wanted Home Rule because he believed it was the best way of keeping the United Kingdom together as a traitor working to break up the United Kingdom. Ulster was first publicly read at an Unionist rally in Belfast, where the largest Union Jack ever made was unfolded.

Kipling admitted it was meant to strike a "hard blow" against the Asquith government's Home Rule bill: "Rebellion, rapine, hate, Oppression, wrong and greed, Are loosed to rule our fate, By England's act and deed". Ulster generated much controversy with the Conservative MP Sir Mark Sykes. Who as a Unionist was opposed to the Home Rule bill condemning Ulster in The Morning Post. As a "direct appeal to ignorance and a deliberate attempt to foster religious hate". Kipling was a staunch opponent of Bolshevism.

A position which he shared with his friend Henry Rider Haggard. The two had bonded on Kipling's arrival in London in 1889 largely due to their shared opinions, and remained lifelong friends. According to the English magazine Masonic Illustrated , Kipling became a Freemason.

In about 1885, before the usual minimum age of 21. Being initiated into Hope and Perseverance Lodge No. He later wrote to The Times.

I was Secretary for some years of the Lodge... Which included Brethren of at least four creeds. I was entered [as an Apprentice] by a member from Brahmo Somaj. Passed [to the degree of Fellow Craft] by a Mohammedan. And raised [to the degree of Master Mason] by an Englishman.

Kipling received not only the three degrees of Craft Masonry but also the side degrees of Mark Master Mason. Kipling so loved his Masonic experience that he memorialised its ideals in his poem "The Mother Lodge".

And used the fraternity and its symbols as vital plot devices in his novella The Man Who Would Be King. At the beginning of the First World War. Like many other writers, Kipling wrote pamphlets and poems enthusiastically supporting the UK war aims of restoring Belgium, after it had been occupied by Germany.

Together with generalised statements that Britain was standing up for the cause of good. In September 1914, Kipling was asked by the government to write propaganda. An offer that he accepted.

Kipling's pamphlets and stories were popular with the British people during the war, his major themes being to glorify the British military as the place for heroic men to be, while citing German atrocities against Belgian civilians and the stories of women brutalised by a horrific war unleashed by Germany, yet surviving and triumphing in spite of their suffering. Kipling was enraged by reports of the Rape of Belgium. In 1915, which he saw as a deeply inhumane act, which led him to see the war as a crusade for civilisation against barbarism.

In a 1915 speech, Kipling declared, There was no crime, no cruelty, no abomination that the mind of men can conceive of which the German has not perpetrated, is not perpetrating, and will not perpetrate if he is allowed to go on.... Today, there are only two divisions in the world... Alongside his passionate antipathy towards Germany.

Kipling was privately deeply critical of how the war was being fought by the British Army. Complaining as early as October 1914 that Germany should have been defeated by now, and something must be wrong with the British Army. Kipling, who was shocked by the heavy losses that the British Expeditionary Force.

Had taken by the autumn of 1914, blaming the entire pre-war generation of British politicians, who he argued had failed to learn the lessons of the Boer War. Thus thousands of British soldiers were now paying with their lives for their failure in the fields of France and Belgium. Kipling had scorn for men who shirked duty in the First World War. In "The New Army in Training". (1915), Kipling concluded by saying. Memorial to 2nd Lt John Kipling in Burwash. Was killed in action at the Battle of Loos. In September 1915, at age 18. John had initially wanted to join the Royal Navy, but having had his application turned down after a failed medical examination due to poor eyesight, he opted to apply for military service as an army officer. But again, his eyesight was an issue during the medical examination. In fact, he tried twice to enlist, but was rejected. His father had been lifelong friends with Lord Roberts. Former commander-in-chief of the British Army, and colonel of the Irish Guards. And at Rudyard's request, John was accepted into the Irish Guards.

John Kipling was sent to Loos two days into the battle in a reinforcement contingent. He was last seen stumbling through the mud blindly, with a possible facial injury. A body identified as his was found in 1992, although that identification has been challenged. In 2015, the Commonwealth War Grave Commission. Confirmed that they had correctly identified the burial place of John Kipling.

They record his date of death as 27 September 1915, and that he is buried at St Mary's A. After his son's death, Kipling wrote, If any question why we died / Tell them, because our fathers lied. It is speculated that these words may reveal feelings of guilt at his role in getting John a commission in the Irish Guards. Others, such as English professor Tracy Bilsing, contend that the line refers to Kipling's disgust that British leaders failed to learn the lessons of the Boer War, and were unprepared for the struggle with Germany in 1914, with the "lie" of the "fathers" being that the British Army was prepared for any war when it was not.

John's death has been linked to Kipling's 1916 poem My Boy Jack. , notably in the play My Boy Jack.

And its subsequent television adaptation. Along with the documentary Rudyard Kipling: A Remembrance Tale.

However, the poem was originally published at the head of a story about the Battle of Jutland. And appears to refer to a death at sea; the "Jack" referred to is probably a generic Jack Tar.

In the Kipling family, Jack was the name of the family dog, while John Kipling was always John, making the identification of the protagonist of "My Boy Jack" with John Kipling somewhat questionable. However, Kipling was indeed emotionally devastated by the death of his son. He is said to have assuaged his grief by reading the novels of Jane Austen. Aloud to his wife and daughter.

During the war, he wrote a booklet The Fringes of the Fleet. Containing essays and poems on various nautical subjects of the war. Some of these were set to music by the English composer Edward Elgar. Kipling became friends with a French soldier named Maurice Hammoneau, whose life had been saved in the First World War when his copy of Kim , which he had in his left breast pocket, stopped a bullet. Hammoneau presented Kipling with the book, with bullet still embedded, and his Croix de Guerre.

As a token of gratitude. They continued to correspond, and when Hammoneau had a son, Kipling insisted on returning the book and medal. On 1 August 1918, a poem, "The Old Volunteer", appeared under his name in The Times. The next day, he wrote to the newspaper to disclaim authorship and a correction appeared.

Although The Times employed a private detective to investigate, the detective appears to have suspected Kipling himself of being the author, and the identity of the hoaxer was never established. The item "THE JUNGLE BOOK! Leather Case + Second RARE" is in sale since Thursday, July 25, 2019. This item is in the category "Books\Antiquarian & Collectible".books" and is located in Moab, Utah.

This item can be shipped worldwide.

  • Publisher: Macmillan and Co.
  • Modified Item: No
  • Subject: Literature & Fiction
  • Place of Publication: Londn
  • Author: Rudyard Kipling
  • Topic: Classics
  • Year Printed: 1894
  • Language: English
  • Special Attributes: First Edition
  • Original/Facsimile: Original
  • Binding: Fine Binding

THE JUNGLE BOOK! Rudyard Kipling(FIRST EDITION!)1894! Leather Case + Second RARE